4 Kinds of Knowing #Propositional #Procedural #Perspectival #Participatory

Propositional knowing refers to knowledge that is expressed in the form of propositions, or statements that can be evaluated as true or false. These propositions can be simple or complex and can be expressed in natural language or in formal logic. Propositional knowledge is the most common type of knowledge that people possess and is based on the belief that certain things are true. It is also the foundation of most scientific and mathematical knowledge.

Propositional knowledge can be thought of as declarative knowledge, as it expresses a fact or belief about the world. Examples of propositional knowledge include statements such as “the sky is blue,” “Paris is the capital of France,” or “2 + 2 = 4.”

Procedural knowledge is knowledge of how to perform a task or a set of tasks. It involves knowing how to do something, as opposed to knowing what something is. Examples of procedural knowledge include knowing how to ride a bike, how to cook a certain dish, or how to program a computer. It is often acquired through practice and repetition, and is typically stored in the long-term memory.

4 Kinds of Knowing #Propositional #Procedural #Perspectival #Participatory

Procedural knowledge refers to knowledge of how to perform a task or a set of actions. Some examples include:

Cooking a specific dish (e.g. how to make a chocolate cake)
Playing a musical instrument (e.g. how to play a chord on a guitar)
Operating machinery (e.g. how to start a car engine)
Performing a specific athletic activity (e.g. how to perform a backflip)
Programming a computer (e.g. how to write a for loop in Python)
Performing a specific medical procedure (e.g. how to administer CPR)
Following a set of instructions to assemble a piece of furniture
In general, procedural knowledge is a type of knowledge that can be taught, practiced, and perfected through repetition and experience.

Perspectival knowing refers to the idea that knowledge is always filtered through the perspective of the individual or group who is acquiring it. This means that our understanding of the world is influenced by our experiences, biases, and cultural background, and that different people may have different perspectives on the same subject. This concept can be seen in fields such as sociology, psychology, and philosophy, and it is often used to explain why people may have different interpretations of the same information.

Examples of perspectival knowledge include:

A person’s religious beliefs influencing their understanding of the world, such as interpreting natural phenomena as divine intervention.

A person’s cultural background influencing their understanding of morality and what is considered right or wrong.

A person’s socioeconomic status influencing their understanding of social issues and their potential solutions.

A person’s political beliefs influencing their understanding of economic policies and their potential effects.

A person’s educational background influencing their understanding of scientific theories and concepts.

A person’s personal experiences influencing their understanding of mental health and treating mental illness.

A person’s gender, sexual orientation, race, or other demographic characteristics influencing their understanding of discrimination and social inequality.

A person’s profession influencing their understanding of specific field or industry .

These examples illustrate how different people may have different perspectives on the same subject, based on their background, experiences, and worldview.

Participatory knowing refers to the process of actively engaging with the world, through observation, interaction and experience, in order to gain knowledge and understanding. It emphasizes the role of the individual in shaping their own understanding and knowledge, rather than passively receiving information from others. Participatory knowing can be seen as a form of experiential learning, and is often used in fields such as education, design, and community development.

In other words Participatory knowing refers to a type of knowledge acquisition and understanding that is achieved through active engagement and participation in the process of learning. This approach emphasizes the importance of personal experience and involvement in the learning process, rather than simply receiving information through passive means such as reading or listening. Participatory knowing can involve activities such as problem-solving, collaboration, and reflection. It is often used in fields such as education, community development, and organizational learning.

Participatory knowledge refers to knowledge that is generated and shared through active participation and collaboration among individuals or groups. Some examples of participatory knowledge include:

Wiki articles, where users can edit and contribute information to a shared document.

Community gardening projects, where individuals come together to share knowledge and skills in order to grow food collectively.

Crowdsourcing initiatives, where organizations gather information and ideas from a large group of people.

Open-source software development, where programmers collaborate to create and improve software.

Online forums and discussion groups, where people share information and ideas on a specific topic.

Co-creation workshops, where stakeholders, experts and citizens come together to identify and solve common problems.

Participatory budgeting, where citizens directly decide how to allocate a portion of a municipal or public budget.



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